Ib biology option d notes

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Ib biology option d notes

Allele Frequency — The frequency of an allele, as a proportion of all alleles of the gene in the population. It is measured on a scale from 0.

Option D.2 – Species and Speciation

Selective pressures cause certain alleles to be passed onto the next generation with greater frequency that others. Before biologists had any understanding of genetics, species were defined according to the morphological characteristics of the organisms.

Although still useful, this ignores the fact that species can evolve.

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When a species has diverged into two forms with slightly different characteristics, it can be challenging to decide whether they are different enough to be classed as different species, or whether they are still close enough to be one species. Similarity within a species is maintained by interbreeding. On the other hand, organisms of two different species are morphologically distinct because they do not interbreed.

Hence, the definition of a species is:. Geographical isolation — Migration can lead to geographical isolation of populations. This is a barrier between gene pools that can cause two distinct species to develop. It is a form of allopatric speciation. Hybrid infertility — frequently due to polyploidy. Species with different numbers of chromosome sets will have offspring that is sterile.

Temporal isolation — organisms may reach sexual maturity at different times. Although they exist in the same geographical area as other organisms, they have a temporal barrier between gene pools and cannot interbreed.

Behavioural isolation — very similar to temporal isolation, as behaviour generally affects whether species are available for breeding at the same time. For example, species that hibernate or undergo metamorphosis may emerge for reproducing at different times. In plants like the Rumex genus, the species have a wide array of chromosome set numbers which create barriers between the gene pools.

Some a diploid with 20 chromosomes, whilst others have 40 chromosomes and are tetraploid. There are even hexaploid and decaploid species. If a hybrid is produced between the diploid and tetraploid species, its gametes would be triploid and thus infertile, since meiosis cannot be completed in triploid cells.Brent Cornell.

Cell Introduction 2. Cell Structure 3. Membrane Structure 4. Membrane Transport 5. Origin of Cells 6. Cell Division 2: Molecular Biology 1. Metabolic Molecules 2. Water 3. Protein 5. Enzymes 6. Cell Respiration 9. Photosynthesis 3: Genetics 1.

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Genes 2. Chromosomes 3. Meiosis 4. Inheritance 5. Genetic Modification 4: Ecology 1. Energy Flow 3. Carbon Cycling 4. Climate Change 5: Evolution 1. Evolution Evidence 2. Natural Selection 3. Classification 4. Cladistics 6: Human Physiology 1. Digestion 2. The Blood System 3. Disease Defences 4.

Summary: IB Biology Option D: Human Physiology

Gas Exchange 5. Homeostasis Higher Level 7: Nucleic Acids 1.You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email.

Notify me of new posts via email. I set up this site to help my own revision, as well as yours. Bear with me as I'm still in the midst of uploading and updating.

These notes have been compiled by myself from my textbooks, online resources, and from kind friends that have been so helpful as to send me their notes to upload :.

IB Revision. Share this: Twitter Facebook. Like this: Like Loading Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:.

Email required Address never made public. Name required. These notes have been compiled by myself from my textbooks, online resources, and from kind friends that have been so helpful as to send me their notes to upload : Happy revising! Tempus Fugit. Follow Blog via Email Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Join 84 other followers Follow. Blog at WordPress. By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use.

To find out more, including how to control cookies, see here: Cookie Policy.International Baccalaureate IB. IB Biology is challenging, college-level biology, so sometimes you will need a little more study help than your class notes provide. Because of the COVID coronavirus pandemic, all IB exams for May have been canceled and coursework deadlines have been extended for schools that have closed. Type in "Cell Theory" and it will bring up all of the study materials for Cell Theory.

If you are looking for general quiz material for the whole IB Biology Exam, you can skip to the end of the article to the Overall Reviews section for great overall study resources. I will separate the resources into:. You should use this guide throughout the year as a refresher before tests and quizzes or for additional support if you did not entirely understand a specific lesson in your IB Biology class.

You should be studying throughout the year and not waiting to cram before the IB Biology exam. You should also be integrating real practice questions with each subject. Also, if you are struggling to understand the material, you should be studying the corresponding chapter in a review book as you learn that chapter in class.

ib biology option d notes

Many students have a hard time with IB Biology. There is a lot of material to cover and you need to be learning it throughout the year s in order to master the IB Biology exam. Some common mistakes students make when studying are:.

How far away are you from a 4. Use our easy GPA tool to pinpoint how well you have to do in future classes to get your GPA up to that magical number. Both levels cover topicsand HL additionally consists of topics Topic 1 Overview Notes. Topic 2 Overview Notes.

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Topic 3 Overview Notes. Topic 4 Overview Notes.

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Topic 5 Overview Notes. Topic 6 Overview Notes. Topic 7 Overview Notes.

ib biology option d notes

Topic 8 Overview Notes. Topic 9 Overview Notes. Topic 10 Overview Notes. Topic 11 Overview Notes. We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service.Full set of notes separated by chapter zip file. These notes essentially span across all the course content required for the syllabus, I progressively updated them with further explanations and concepts as I went from chapter to chapter. I would not recommend trying to memorise everything in here, but rather try to understand it all, because what works best in an examination is an almost intuitive grasp of a subject.

In my case, I tried to further my own understanding by looking at the maths behind some of the topics in the course and have written some of the expressions I have played around with to prove concepts in these sets of notes.

I personally did not do this, choosing to focus on grasping the underlying intuition within concepts instead — this approach worked well for me. Like Like. I used my textbook as well as a number of online resources. A lot of the proofs you find in my notes started off as expressions I was playing around with just to try and understand some concepts on a mathematical level.

I just wanted to say that you are an absolute legend and life saver, and that me not failing the ib will be dedicated to you. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account.

Human Evolution Option D (IB Biology)

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Have fun! Share this: Twitter Facebook. Like this: Like Loading Hi there, I used my textbook as well as a number of online resources. I just wanted to say that you are an absolute legend and life saver, and that me not failing the ib will be dedicated to you Like Like.

Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:. Email required Address never made public.

IB Biology

Name required. By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use. To find out more, including how to control cookies, see here: Cookie Policy.Alternatively — a zip file with the notes separated by topic.

Cell Biology. Molecular Biology, Nucleic Acids and Metabolism. Human Physiology. Plant Biology. Genetics and Evolution. Animal Physiology. Option C — Ecology and Conservation. Just wanted to say thank you so much for these notes, they are fantastic!

Thank you! Like Like. I am not entirely sure if the notes for Biology and Chemistry is for the new syllabus. I am being assessed in Are those notes suitable for me? But do you have for Hl as well? You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.

Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email.

ib biology option d notes

Cell Biology 2, 7 and 8. Molecular Biology, Nucleic Acids and Metabolism 3. Genetics 4. Ecology 5. Evolution 6. Human Physiology 9.

ib biology option d notes

Plant Biology Genetics and Evolution Share this: Twitter Facebook. Like this: Like Loading Cheers, Ardon Like Like. Hey, thank you so much fo the notes.IB Biology - Curriculum Notes. Draw and label a diagram of Xenopus right. This involves:. The changes come from experiences and how an individual uses their nervous system This allows us to form new memories, is the basis for some types of reasoning and repairs damage to the brain and spinal cord. Visual Cortex — the area of the brain that receives neural impulses from light-sensitive cells called rods peripheral vision and dim light and cones visual acuity.

This also includes pattern recognition and speed and direction of moving objects. It is located in the left cerebral hemisphere. If this area is damaged, the person can recognize speech and know what they want to say; however, they cannot put together meaningful words and sentences.

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Nucleus accumbens — This is the pleasure reward centre that is located in both cerebral hemispheres. Pleasurable stimuli such as food or sex cause the release of dopamine, which produces feelings of pleasure and satisfaction. Drugs such as cocaine and heroin also cause a high level of release of dopamine by the nucleus accumbens. To what extent should the views of the family members be given priority when making decisions in medical ethics?

What criteria should be used to make ethical decisions? See the diagram below. Diagram Answers. Include the receptor cell, sensory neuron, relay neuron, motor neuron and effector. Is intuition a valid starting point for scientists? Practice Questions Banded wrens Thryothorus pleurostictus are known to sing actively in defence of their territories during the breeding season.

Males possess over twenty different song-types. When two males approach each other near a boundary they engage in counter-singing and some song-types will be shared. The following diagram shows the pattern of song-types used during an interaction between two males at their territorial boundary in the Guanacaste Conservation Area, Costa Rica. The arrows indicate when both males sang identical song-types in succession. The interaction ended without a fight when the males retreated from the boundary.

Describe the changes in the song-type pattern during the entire interaction. Deduce how a male banded wren can communicate aggressive behaviour. For one group labelled EscD the shock coincided with switching off the light, resulting in darkness in that compartment. The training was repeated for five sessions. The graphs below show the mean results for the two groups.

Zielinski and Savonenko,Acta Neurobiol. Nature of science: Assessing risks associated with scientific research—patient advocates will often press for the speeding up of drug approval processes, encouraging more tolerance of risk. Glutamate is a main excitatory neurotransmitter and GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter. Slow-acting neurotransmitters have a role in memory and learning As above, they can cause the release of secondary messengers.

These messengers can increase synaptic transmission by increasing the number of receptors in the membrane or modify these receptors to increase the rate of ion movement into the neuron when the neurotransmitter binds Secondary messengers can persist for days, causing long term potentiation LTP This may be essential for synaptic plasticity necessary for memory and learning The learning of new skills has been linked to the formation of new synapses in the hippocampus Memory is long term and requires the synthesis of proteins The proteins change the form and function of the synapse, resulting in a memory.

Cocaine and Amphetamines. Genetic predisposition. Social Environment. Dopamine Secretion. There are many cultures that use drugs to enhance rituals or religious experiences.


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